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Avascular necrosis (AVN) or osteonecrosis of the femur head (ONFH) is a result of an interruption of blood supply to the bone.

The femoral head lays at the most remote part of the bone's vasculature and is enclosed by cartilage. Its access to local blood vessels is restricted, making the femur head vulnerable to necrosis caused be ischemia (lack of blood supply).

The possible causes may be idiopathic, alcohol- or drug-induced, blockage in a blood vessel supplying the femoral head, or fat embolism.

Other causes are anemia, Gaucher disease, increase bone marrow pressure, impaired arterial supply, obstruction of venous drainage, vasculitis, intermedullary hemorrhage and hypofibrogenemia.

Joint pain is usually the initial symptom which can either be dull, aching, sharp, or intermittent. Pain may be confined over the hip or radiating to the buttocks, gonads, or knee and is usually aggravated by standing or walking and relieved by rest.

The pain can be debilitating, limiting the joint range of motion.

The main mechanism of AVN is hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the bone which results in ischemia and death of the marrow and the osteocytes.

The possible causes may be idiopathic, alcohol- or drug-induced, blockage in a blood vessel supplying the femoral head, or fat embolism.

Other causes are anemia, Gaucher disease, increase bone marrow pressure, impaired arterial supply, obstruction of venous drainage, vasculitis, intermedullary hemorrhage and hypofibrogenemia.

Joint pain is usually the initial symptom which can either be dull, aching, sharp, or intermittent. Pain may be confined over the hip or radiating to the buttocks, gonads, or knee and is usually aggravated by standing or walking and relieved by rest.

The pain can be debilitating, limiting the joint range of motion.

The main mechanism of AVN is hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the bone which results in ischemia and death of the marrow and the osteocytes.